Hindi literature (Hindi: हिन्दी साहित्य, Hindi Sahitya) includes literature in the various Central Zone Indo-Aryan languages which have writing systems. It is broadly classified into four prominent forms (styles) based on the date of production. They are:
- Vir-Gatha kal (poems extolling brave warriors) – 11th–14th century
- Bhaktikal poems (devotional poems) – 14th–18th century
- Riti or Srngar kal poems (poems of romance) – 18th–20th century
- Adhunik kal (modern literature) – 20th century onwards
The literature was produced in dialects such as Khariboli, Braj, Bundeli, Awadhi, Kannauji, as well as Marwari, Magahi, Bhojpuri and Chhattisgarhi. From the 20th century, works produced in Standard Hindi, a register of Hindustani written in the Devanagari script, are sometimes regarded as the only basis of modern literature in Hindi.
Hindi Kavita (Poetry)
Hindi has a rich legacy of poetry. There are several genres of Kavita based on Ras, Chhand and Alankar e.g. Shringar, Karun, Veer, Hāsya etc. Hasya Kavita is humorous comic poetry in Hindi. It is particularly famous due to Hindi kavi sammelans. Bal Kavita is children’s rhymes in Hindi.
Many attempts have been made to document Hindi poetry. Some of the most comprehensive online collections for Hindi poetry are Kavitakosh and Geeta-Kavita. The most classy content that has created new audiences who were not looking for Hindi poetry or Hindi content is Hindi Kavita. Many award-winning poets, scholars, journalists and celebrities from Film, Television and Theatre have come forward to support the cause and take it further.
- Chand Bardai(1148–1191), author of Prithviraj Raso.
- Amir Khusro(1253–1325 AD), author of pahelis and mukris in the “Hindavi” dialect.
- Vidyapati(1352–1448), a prominent poet of Eastern dialects.
- Kabir(1398–1518), a major figure of the bhakti (devotional) movement.
- Surdas(1467–1583), author of Sahitya Lahari, Sur Saravali, Sur Sagar
- Malik Muhammad Jayasi(1477–1542), author of the Padmavat (1540) etc.
- Mirabai(1504–1560), author of Mira Padavali
- Tulsidas(1532–1623), author of Ramacharitamanas, Vinay Patrika
- Keshavdas(1555–1617), author of Rasikpriya
- Banarasidas(1586–1643) who is known for his poetic autobiography – Ardhakathānaka, (The Half Story),.
- Bihari(1595–1664) became famous by writing Satasai (Seven Hundred Verses).
- Bhushan(1612–1713), author of Shivabavani, Chhatrasal Dashak
- Vrind(1643–1723), author of Nitisatsai, Vrind Satsai
- Guru Gobind Singh(1669–1708), author of Bichitra Natak
- Sūdan(1700–1753), author of Sujān Charitra
- Lallu Lal(1763–1835), translator of Baital Pachisi, Shakuntala etc and author of Prem Sagar
- Ganga Das(1823–1913), author of about fifty kavya-granthas and thousands of padas, he is known as Bhismpitama of the Hindi poetry.
- Bharatendu Harishchandra(1850–1885), author of Andher Nagari etc; his works are compiled in Bharatendu Granthavali.
- Devaki Nandan Khatri(1861–1913), author of mystery novels like Chandrakanta, Bhootnath
- Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi(1864–1938), author of Kavya Manjusha, Sugandh, Sahitya Sandarbh, Sahitya Vichar
- Munshi Premchand(1880–1936), considered one of the greatest Hindi novelists of all time. His novels include Godaan, Karmabhoomi, Gaban, Mansarovar, Idgah
- Maithili Sharan Gupt(1886–1964), author of Saket, Yashodhara
- Jaishankar Prasad(1889–1937), poet, novelist, playwright, stalwart of the literary Chhayavaadi His greatest works are Kamayani, Dhruvswamini, Skandagupta etc.
- Makhanlal Chaturvedi(1889–1968), first recipient of Sahitya Akademi Award in Hindi for his work Him Taringini, works include Yug Charan, Pushp Ki Abhilasha
- Rahul Sankrityayan(1893–1963), the father of Indian travelled literature.
- Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’(1896–1961), one of the “four pillars” of the Chhayavaad
- Sumitranandan Pant, (1900–1977) eminent Hindi poet who wrote mainly on nature.
- Yashpal(1903–1976), author of Jhutha Sach, Meri Teri Uski Baat
- Jainendra Kumar(1905–1988), An extremely influential figure in 20th-century Hindi literature.
- Hazariprasad Dwivedi(1907–1979), novelist, literary historian.
- Mahadevi Varma(1907–1987), one of the “four pillars” of the Chhayavaad
- Ramdhari Singh Dinkar(1908–1974), hailed as a Rashtrakavi.
- Nagarjun(1911–1998), hailed as Janakavi (The People’s Poet).
- Bhisham Sahni(1915–2003), novelist, playwright, author of Tamas, Madhavi
- Nalin Vilochan Sharma(1916–1961), one of the pioneers of Nakenwad
- Phanishwar Nath ‘Renu’(1921–1977), novelist best known for Maila Anchal, Juloos
- Harishankar Parsai(1922–1995), known for satirical works.
- Naresh Mehta(1922–2000), poet, playwright, one of the pioneers of Nakenwad
- Mohan Rakesh(1925–1972), novelist, playwright known for Ashadh Ka Ek Din, Andhere Band Kamre, Na Aane Wala Kal
- Dharmavir Bharati(1926–1997), a renowned writer, author of Gunaho Ka Devta, Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda
- Raghuvir Sahay(1929–1990) was a versatile Hindi poet, translator, short-story writer and journalist.
- Nirmal Verma(1929–2005), one of the founders of the Nai Kahani literary movement.
- Kamleshwar(1932–2007), author of Kitne Pakistan.
- Dushyant Kumar(1933–1975), prominent Hindi poet snd composer of ghazals.
- Kashinath Singh(1937–) author of Rehan Par Ragghu, Kashi Ka Assi
- Narendra Kohli(1940–), known for reinventing the ancient for of epic writing in modern prose.
Since my childhood I used to wonder why these Hindi poems are so fascinating? I was very much fond of listening to the beautiful poems of great poets/writer and shayar like Hariwansh Rai Bacchanji, Niralaji, Ramdhari Singh Dinkerji, Amrita Pritamji. I am very much impressed by the fascination of these poems and the blending of Hindi and Urdu words which not only increases its beauty but makes it much more interesting. The magic Hindi Poetries carries is unique. The smooth, pitched sound makes it a pleasure to hear and fall in love with them. The words in Hindi poems beautifully captures the feeling and emotions of the poet and the readers can also feel the emotions while reading the poems. The beauty of Hindi Poems lies in the emotions and inspirations attached to it.
In my recent book of 51 Hindi poetries I have written very beautiful and heart touching poems. I called them beautiful as they are all filled with “ऋंगार रस” and I am quite confident that people in all age groups will love my poems. Hindi Poems and Hindi Poetry is the need of hour in our country as our younger generation is very much inclined to the western culture and English/French language and they will never know the beauty of our Hindi/Urdu language.